冀芳, 张建, 薛李赟, 周广鹏, 刘继文, 李珏. 新疆605家企业职业病危害治理工作现状及对策[J]. 环境与职业医学, 2020, 37(1): 69-75. doi: 10.13213/j.cnki.jeom.2020.19522
引用本文: 冀芳, 张建, 薛李赟, 周广鹏, 刘继文, 李珏. 新疆605家企业职业病危害治理工作现状及对策[J]. 环境与职业医学, 2020, 37(1): 69-75. doi: 10.13213/j.cnki.jeom.2020.19522
JI Fang, ZHANG Jian, XUE Li-yun, ZHOU Guang-peng, LIU Ji-wen, LI Jue. Present situation and countermeasures of occupational hazard management in 605 enterprises in Xinjiang[J]. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 2020, 37(1): 69-75. doi: 10.13213/j.cnki.jeom.2020.19522
Citation: JI Fang, ZHANG Jian, XUE Li-yun, ZHOU Guang-peng, LIU Ji-wen, LI Jue. Present situation and countermeasures of occupational hazard management in 605 enterprises in Xinjiang[J]. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 2020, 37(1): 69-75. doi: 10.13213/j.cnki.jeom.2020.19522

新疆605家企业职业病危害治理工作现状及对策

Present situation and countermeasures of occupational hazard management in 605 enterprises in Xinjiang

  • 摘要: 背景

    作为丝绸之路经济带核心区,在开发利用优势资源和不断提高工业化水平的同时,日益凸显的职业病危害问题给新疆职业病危害治理工作带来严峻的挑战。

    目的

    通过调查了解新疆职业病危害分布的基本特征和职业病危害治理工作现状,评估当前面临的职业病危害风险,为研究制定新疆职业病防治对策提供科学依据,为实现职业病防治相关规划目标提供坚实保障。

    方法

    通过问卷调查的方式,采集新疆605家职业病危害企业信息,设置12项指标反映职业病危害治理工作实施情况,采用职业病危害治理工作综合指标反映职业病危害治理整体水平,按企业规模、经济类型、行业、职业病危害风险类别对企业的职业病危害分布特征及职业病危害治理工作实施情况进行统计分析。

    结果

    新疆605家被调查企业中,以小型企业(占54.9%)、有限责任公司(占46.8%)、职业病危害风险严重企业(占61.7%)数量居多。接触职业病危害因素(简称:接害)的职工有76 499人,职工接害率为42.7%。接害职工主要集中在大型企业(占52.0%)、国有企业(占48.8%)和职业病危害风险严重企业(占84.1%)。不同行业中,建材行业企业数量最多(占19.2%),化学原料和化学制品制造业接害职工人数最多(占23.8%)。不同规模、经济类型、职业病危害风险类别企业职工接害率存在差异(P < 0.001),职工接害率较高的为微型企业(66.6%)和职业病危害风险较重的企业(45.4%);国有企业接害率较低(33.9%)。不同行业职工接害率亦存在差异(P < 0.001),其中职工接害率较高的行业为机动车燃料零售业(95.3%)、化学原料和化学制品制造业(57.0%)和纺织行业(56.0%)。反映企业职业病危害治理工作实施情况的12项指标的符合率在27.1%~96.5%之间,职业病危害治理工作综合指标平均符合率为62.2%。不同规模、经济类型、职业病危害风险类别企业职业病危害治理工作综合指标符合率存在差异(P < 0.001),其中小型企业、有限责任公司和私营企业、职业病危害风险较重企业职业病危害治理工作综合指标符合率低于平均符合率。不同行业的职业病危害治理综合指标符合率差异有统计学意义(P < 0.001),其中非金属矿采选、轻工、机械等行业综合指标符合率低于平均水平。

    结论

    新疆各类接害企业职业病危害治理水平参差不齐,形势不容乐观。监管部门应聚焦小微型企业、有限责任公司和私营企业等非公有制企业、职业病危害风险较重企业的职业病防治工作,加强非金属矿采选、轻工、机械等重点行业的监管力度,实施重点监管和分类分级监管策略,督促用人单位落实职业病防治主体责任,以保护劳动者健康,保障职业病防治相关规划目标的顺利实现。

     

    Abstract: Background

    As the core area of the Silk Road Economic Belt, while Xinjiang has continuously exploited superior resources and raised industrialization, it has also faced severe challenges to the management of occupational hazards brought by increasingly prominent occupational hazards.

    Objective

    The purpose of this study is to understand the basic characteristics of occupational hazard distribution and current situation of occupational hazard management in enterprises of Xinjiang, assess the risks of occupational diseases, and provide a scientific basis for formulating occupational disease prevention and control measures and a solid guarantee for achieving the goals of regional occupational disease prevention and control plans.

    Methods

    A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information of 605 enterprises with occupational hazards in Xinjiang. Twelve individual indicators and one comprehensive indicator were used to evaluate the implementation of occupational hazard management measures. The distribution characteristics of occupational hazards and the implementation of occupational hazard management measures were analyzed against enterprise scales, economic types, industries, and occupational hazardous risk categories.

    Results

    Among the 605 surveyed enterprises in Xinjiang, most enterprises were small enterprises (54.9%), limited liability companies (46.8%), and those having serious occupational hazards (61.7%). There were 76 499 workers exposed to occupational hazards (42.7%). The exposed workers mainly concentrated in large enterprises (52.0%), state-owned enterprises (48.8%), and enterprises with serious occupational hazards (84.1%). Regarding industry, building materials industry was leading in the numbers of enterprises (19.2%), and chemical industry had the largest number of workers exposed to occupational hazards (23.8%). There were significant differences in the exposure rate among workers from enterprises of different scales, economic types, and occupational hazardous risk categories (P < 0.001), especially high in micro-scale enterprises (66.6%) and enterprises with moderate risks of occupational hazards (45.4%) and low in stateowned enterprises (33.9%). There was also a significant difference in the exposure rate among workers from different industries (P < 0.001), with higher rates in motor vehicle fuel retail (95.3%), chemical industry (57.0%), and textile industry (56.0%). The compliance rates of the 12 individual indicators ranged from 27.1% to 96.5%, and the average compliance rate of the comprehensive indicator was 62.2%. There was a significant difference in the compliance rate of the comprehensive indicator among enterprises of different scales, economic types, and occupational hazardous risk categories (P < 0.001), and the rates of small enterprises, limited liability companies, private enterprises, and enterprises with moderate risks of occupational hazards were lower than the average rate. There was a significant difference in the compliance rate of the comprehensive indicator among different industries (P < 0.001), and the rates of non-metallic mineral mining, light industry, and machinery industry were lower than the average rate.

    Conclusion

    Various enterprises in Xinjiang show different levels of occupational hazards management, and the situation is still grim. Related regulatory authorities should take small and micro enterprises, limited liability companies, private enterprises, and enterprises with moderate occupational hazardous risks as the targets of occupational disease prevention and control program, and strengthen supervision over key industries such as non-metallic mineral mining, light industry, and machinery industry. Through implementing strategies of priority supervision and classification supervision, and urging employers to implement the main responsibility of occupational disease prevention and control, we aim to protect workers' health and achieve the goals of related occupational disease prevention and control plans.

     

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