Survey of nonylphenol, octylphenol, and bisphenol A levels in crucian carp in Xiangjiang River and associated health risk assessment
Background Xiangjiang River is the main source of water supply in Zunyi area. With the acceleration of urban industrialization, the pollution of Xiangjiang River is increasingly serious. Among many pollutants, nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA), typical representatives of environmental endocrine disruptors, deserve attention.
Objective This study investigates the accumulation of NP, OP, and BPA in crucian carp in Xiangjiang River and the average contents of NP, OP, and BPA in sediment, and assesses associated human health risk.
Methods In July 2017, six crucian carp samples were collected at each of seven sampling sites from Beijiao Reservoir to Dingzikou Reach of Xiangjiang River. At the same time, seven sediment samples were collected in the sampling sites. The contents of NP, OP, and BPA in muscle tissues of crucian carp samples and in sediment samples were detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The biological sediment enrichment factor (BSAF) and target hazard quotient (THQ) of the three substances were calculated.
Results NP(117.59±80.76) μg/kg (in wet weight), OP(117.12±69.30) μg/kg (in wet weight), and BPA(127.03±93.44) μg/kg (in wet weight) were detected in muscle tissues of crucian carp samples at all sampling sites. The contents of NP, OP, and BPA in muscle tissues of crucian carp samples from the First People's Hospital sampling site were the highest, which were 3.61, 2.37, and 11.15 times of the identified lowest concentrations (Beijiao Reservoir sampling site). The contents of NP, OP, and BPA in sediment samples were (589.8±352.4), (528.5±404.5), and (377.5±228.0) μg/kg (in dry weight), respectively. There were significant positive correlations between the contents of NP and OP (r=0.441, P=0.003), NP and BPA (r=0.425, P=0.005), OP and BPA (r=0.505, P=0.001) in muscle tissues among the crucian carp samples. The BSAF and THQ values of NP, OP, and BPA in muscle tissues of crucian carp samples at each sampling site were less than 4 and 1, respectively.
Conclusion NP, OP, and BPA are positive in muscle tissues of crucian carp and sediment samples in the study river, and there is no health risk to human body.